Wednesday, August 26, 2020
It involves the otherworldly, material, scholarly and passionate highlights of a general public and incorporates, notwithstanding expressions of the human experience and letters, the worth frameworks, conventions, methods of life and convictions of the general public. It additionally ingests from different societies and experiences changes with time, here and there helpful, some of the time backward. At the point when the word Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ is referenced, we can consider numerous things as Ã¢â¬Å"culturalÃ¢â¬ , for example, language, clothingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ and so forth, since we characterize societies of better places. Be that as it may, culture is important to the point that it must be saved for a large number of years,and gave by one age to another. Culture is imperative to the point that it is more than its unmistakable obvious highlights, on the off chance that we stretches out this to the internal identity of an individual, to individuals inside a general public, further to the entire network, possibly we can discover a few answers by discovering how they are influenced by culture. Culture speaks to an entire network, to research how culture changes oneÃ¢â¬â¢s inward qualities, we need to characterize some basic convictions, much the same as garments that has a few highlights that help recognize its social foundation. Individuals having the equivalent social foundation, as a rule, are probably going to carry on likewise, on the grounds that their instruction and religion foundation have additionally social components. The facts confirm that characters are diverse for everybody, except culture can influence individuals in a specific way since it gives a domain from which they acquire their qualities, particularly for kids at youthful age. For instance, chinese are commonly viewed as increasingly conscious yet the westerners are progressively receptive and blunt, their training style has assumed a significant job, in light of the fact that in Chinese culture youngsters need to figure out how to be formed and be well mannered and there is a halfway point among educators and understudies, while in western they will in general be dynamic to be valued by the instructors. Thusly individuals from various social foundations will have an assorted variety of ways communicating a similar goal. Culture is significant in light of the fact that it has a few qualities that are naturally fill in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind through a situation, which changes oneÃ¢â¬â¢s deeds. Culture likewise assumes a significant job to the communications between individuals inside a network. At the point when a similar culture can cause similitudes of qualities, this can bond individuals with a similar culture together in light of the fact that they will feel good and simpler in light of the fact that it affirms their qualities. Then again, they may discover different societies odd in the event that they disregard social distinction. Culture can pull an individual closer, or further away to the dominant part, in this manner culture is essential to the correspondence organize in a general public also, maining the relationship among individuals. Since culture can shape imperceptible securities between individuals in the network, this can hold individuals with the equivalent social foundation together, passing on the qualities. This propogation of qualities is can not just transmit culture information and hold the relationship among individuals, it likewise develops a drawn out custom after a long time. Culture is fortified along these lines since it can give foundation and reference to its later ages of its capacity of keeping the drawn out custom, picking up the feeling of having a place of individuals with the nation of that culture. It is significant as far as the improvement of a network overall, as it structures social gatherings together which assist going with refined on starting with one age then onto the next one, keeping up the presence of some customary qualities. Culture contains components that influence oneÃ¢â¬â¢s internal qualities other than simply outer attributes, which those qualities assume a significant job in as long as he can remember. The interchanges between individuals are additionally founded on culture somewhat and this structures social gatherings, passing social information on, developing a social status to a nation for quite a long time which individuals with the equivalent social foundation will discover them having a place.
Posted by Kenneth Wray at 5:00 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Gracefully, Demand and Equilibrium Price - Essay Example She sits idle yet permits the market powers to build the costs. Thusly the market request bend will move from D to D2. Another harmony will currently be framed as outcome where Supply bend meets D2 bend. At this stage the amount will be extraordinary than the underlying harmony amount requested will be 8000 and the costs will be more prominent $4.5 relying upon the quality of the market request. A portion of the expanded interest will be consumed by the expansion in cost and balance amount provided to the market will stay 8000 pies. This will bring about increment in income for Mrs. Sections of land and thusly the expansion the benefits. Consequently, Mrs. Sections of land will pick this alternative if different choices are not yielding preferable outcomes over this one as far as benefits and income. Be that as it may, by picking this choice her position will be defenseless over the long haul and she can hope to lose in the expansive point of view. Over the long haul, significant exp enses will urge rivalry to enter the market and take a portion of the piece of the pie by keeping costs lower than contenders. Accordingly, over the long haul, her amount provided will be under 8000, as charging significant expense will bring about piece of the overall industry being lost to buyers. Likewise, subsequently her deals may likewise encounter a negative pattern and she may miss out over the long haul by raising costs. As it were, after the underlying addition of expanded income followed by expanded, costs she may wind up welcoming a great deal of rivalry to the business and may miss out over the long haul. The cost of the pies will decrease and return to the typical balance cost of $4.5. Over the long haul, the harmony cost and amount will be diverse on the grounds that new organizations can enter the market, though in the short-run, no new firms can enter the market. Because of this since quite a while ago run impacts of this will be unique in relation to short run impa cts. Case 2: Mrs. Sections of land chooses to build flexibly to satisfy extra need Case 2: Mrs. Sections of land fulfills the Market Need In this choice assume, the underlying amount is again 8000, spoke to by the mark q1 on the chart at a spot where request and gracefully meet. In any case, so as to satisfy the need, Mr. Sections of land chooses to build the staff and thusly the flexibly. This will imply that there will be not increment in the cost yet the amount requested will presently ascend to q2, which is more noteworthy than 8000 pie. Over the long haul, her deals and cost will stay consistent relying upon the market pattern and relying upon the kind of rivalry that exist in the market. Be that as it may, since she is satisfying need there is no space for contenders to enter the market except if they concoct an uncommon item. In this manner, by picking this alternative she is demoralizing the opposition in the market which is going to keep her benefits and incomes consistent over the long haul additionally and she may keep on getting a charge out of the accomplishment over the long haul too. What's more, the bes t thing here is that she should impart benefits to nobody like she needs to do in the alternative 3. Here, over the long haul, no new organization can enter the market in light of the fact that there is no space in the market as Shelly Acres is working under the proficient states of both allocative and beneficial productivity subsequently over the long haul, there will be no other impact and short-run conditions will win. On the off chance that the
Posted by Kenneth Wray at 7:02 AM
Friday, August 14, 2020
What Would a Recession Mean for You What Would a Recession Mean for You? What Would a Recession Mean for You?If you arent prepared for an economic recession, you could end up losing your job without any kind of financial safety net to catch you.Have you heard rumblings that a new recession is on its way? If so, itâs something youâll want to be ready for. And even a recession isnât just around the bend, youâll still want to be prepared when one inevitably shows up. Hereâs what you need to know about how recessions work, and what you need to do in order to weather the next one that arrives.What is a recession?âA recession refers to the continued contraction of a countrys economy over a prolonged period of time, usually six months or more.â said Joe Bailey, Operations Manager at My Trading Skills (@MyTradingSkills), a financial trading courses provider.âDuring a recession, consumption and demand for goods and services continue to gradually decline over a six month period. Unemployment, on the other hand, begins to rise as demand and consumpt ion fall. A fall in manufacturing, retail sales, and real GDP are also strong indicators that a country is in recession.ââRecessions are cyclical, so although there is never a set date that can be predicted, they are always just around the corner,â added financial analyst Dennis Shirshikov of FitSmallBusiness.com (@FitSmallBiz).While there are many factors in the economy that can lead to a recession, Shirshikov pointed to an access of available credit as one of the main triggers. As an economy gains steam, credit gets easier to access. But at a certain point, it gets a little too easy.âThis happens because times are good, so naturally, people get married, start businesses, buy houses, and spend a little more than they make. The money the one individual spends is the income of another individual, so income grows too. This leads to a sense of security that things are getting better and its ok to borrow and spend a little more,â said Shirshikov.âJust like no individual can borrow forever, the economy as a whole can have too much outstanding credit. First, a couple of people miss payments, then a couple declares bankruptcy, then a local business cant afford to stay open. Eventually, this cycle spreads and is known by economists as a cycle of deleveraging. In other words, the credit starts drying up, banks are less likely to lend, and people cant get access to more credit.âThe most recent recession in the U.S. economy was a big one: The Great Recession lasted from 2007 to 2009 and brought down the global economy along with it. That recession was caused by the subprime mortgage crisisâ"a massive overextension of credit, just like Shirshikov laid out.What would a new recession mean for you?Unless youâve pulled a Ron Swanson and youve got millions of dollars in various precious metals and gemstones buried in around your propertyâ"guarded by traps, no lessâ"than a recession is likely going to leave you worse off. And the more financially unstable yo u are, the more likely that a recession will wreak havoc on your life.âThe rising rates of unemployment are one of the major effects that recession has on the citizens,â explained Bailey. âHigh levels of unemployment mean more people are unable to meet their basic needs such as housing, food, clothes, and education. As a result, people lose their homes and their cars. Young graduates are unable to find jobs, and this completely throws off their careers. Businesses often experience a drop in profits, with many of them having to declare bankruptcy.âAnother recession would increase homelessness, a profound housing crisis with home foreclosures and high rates of unemployment,â said Chad Dion Lassiter, MSW, Executive Director of the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission. âMost recent college graduates would suffer as well under the pressure of attempting to balance looking for a job during a recession and paying back student loans.âAnd if youâre hoping that the effect s will be short-lasting, you probably wonât be so lucky. According to Ashvin Chheda, ChFC ®, CLU ®, President of Opes One Advisors in Addison, Texas, you could be feeling the aftershocks from a coming recession for a long time afterward.âThere could be mid to longer-term impacts on the average family,â said Chheda. For instance, early childhood education could be compromised, health care for families could be compromised, more specifically preventative care and/or vision/dental care. There could be housing implications (loss of home due to inability to pay the mortgage, downsizing of rental home/apartments are examples). There might be a longer-term delay or abandonment of college for older children. ââIn many cases, there is a measurable shortfall to funding for retirement; retirement funding is a function of saving! Similarly, there could be an early hardship drawdown of retirement assets that will have to be replenished later. In more severe cases, there are impacts to the standard of nutrition for families due to a much more constrained budget.ââIn essence,â he concluded, âthe standard of living for families will be compromised due to loss or reduction of wages.âFinally, Dion Lassiter highlighted the psychological effects that recessions can have on many people, problems that all-too-often go unacknowledged. The factors he listed included âhigh rates of anxiety, hypertension, depression, mood disorders and the potential for maladaptive ways of coping under economic distress.âIn summary: The effects of a recession can range from ânot greatâ to âcatastrophic.â It will depend on your individual situation: A reduction in retirement savings or going a year without a raise is one thing, losing a job or home is entirely another. But the more prepared you are, financially, the better youâll be able to weather this time of uncertainty.How can you prepare?Even if you donât think a recession is around the corner, you should still be planning for one to happen eventually. Economies canât grow forever, which means that recessions are inevitable.âWhile economic recessions are few and far between, they do occur periodically and are part of economic cycles,â said Chheda. âPersonal planning to mitigate the effects of a recession are important and every family should have a plan!First things first, you want to be prepared for the emergenciesâ"not just from a recession, but from unexpected expenses like medical bills and car repairs. And if you want to be prepared for emergencies, the best way to do that is with â¦ an emergency fund!âSet up an emergency fund,â urged Bailey, âand build it up to a point where it can be able to cover ones basic expenses for more than three months.â You can find more information in our blog post about how to start building an emergency fund.But your preparations shouldnât stop there. Bailey also recommended that you pay down your debts, âas this will help you gradu ally reduce your monthly expenses.ââBesides savings and debt reduction,â added Shirshikov, âyou should work to have an extra source of income. Whether its a side job, a hobby, or an independent role like real estate, having an option if something happens never hurts.âFinally, if you see your friends and neighbors taking on debt for new houses and parties, remember all of that needs to be repaid,â he added. âSo move against the trend.While most solutions involve planning for the worst, you should also look at ways that you can prepare for the best. In other words, the more valuable you are as an employeeâ"both in terms of work ethic and skill-setâ"the less likely you are to feel the brunt of recession-aided layoffs.âThere are other things that people should do to mitigate the impact of a recession which in many ways is tied to their ability to hold on to their employment,â said Chheda. âInvesting in ones own education; career growth is important. Companies gener ally try to avoid laying-off their top talent, and if they do, those same individuals will find it easier to get re-hired.ââWe cannot predict when a recession will occur,â concluded Bailey, âbut everyday people can prepare adequately for one by building up a healthy emergency fund, finding more sources of income other than their main jobs, and paying down their current debts as much as possible before a recession begins to bite.âIs a new recession on the way?Recently, there has been a fair amount of ink and pixels spilled by national news organizations over the possibility of a recession in the near future. And these fears come with an extra level of worry: While the economy overall has recovered somewhat following the Great Recession, many of those gains havenât extended to lower- and middle-class households.âAnother recession would be more than devastating for our economy specifically for the middle and lower classesâ"not to mention the permanent underclass that exp eriences deep povertyâ"that would only further increase the rates of despair, hopelessness and a profound sense of nihilism,â said Dion Lassiter.âMany of the before mentioned are still trying to recover from the last recession that devastated them and rendered many of them the faces in the bottom of the well where capitalism increases opportunities for the oligarchs and the plutocrats and renders them non-persons and non-entities against the backdrop of the great wells of democracy,â he added.There are many different factors that could contribute to a recession, including interest rate hikes from the Federal Reserve and the Trump administrationâs ongoing trade war with China. One indicator of recession, an economic phenomena known as an inverted yield curve (which we wonât explain here), has already come to pass.But as we said earlier in the piece: Even a recession doesnât happen this year or next year or the year after that, one will happen eventually. And when it does , youâll want to be ready. Otherwise, you could end up relying on short-term no credit check loans like payday loans, cash advances, and title loans to make ends meet.To learn more about managing your finances long-term, check out these related posts and articles from OppLoans:Building Your Financial Life: Budgeting for BeginnersSave More Money with These 40 Expert TipsFrom Budget to Baller: 6 Tips to Grow Your MoneySo Youâve Maxed out Your Credit Cards â¦ Now What?Do you have a personal finance question youd like us to answer? Let us know! You can find us on Facebook and Twitter. | InstagramContributorsJoe Bailey is the Operations Manager at My Trading Skills (@MyTradingSkills), a financial trading courses provider. His experience includes web development, UX and conversion rate optimization for both B2B and B2C.As President of Opes One Advisors, Ashvin Chheda, ChFC, CLU, works closely with clients and focuses on customizing financial advice and strategies for each clientâs unique needs. In addition, he holds the investment related Series 7, 63, and 66 licenses, the Registered Principal Series 24 license, and the Group 1 Life, Health and Disability insurance license. He is a Registered Representative Investment Advisor of Park Avenue Securities, Financial Representative of Guardian.Chad Dion Lassiter began serving as the Executive Director of Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission on May 24, 2018. He is nationally recognized in the fields of American race relations and violence prevention among African-American males. Prior to accepting his post at PHRC, Chad D. Lassiter was a Visiting Scholar at West Chester University in the Undergraduate School of Social Work and Lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was the 2008 recipient of the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Community Involvement Award. He is a former research fellow at the W.E.B. DuBois Collective Research Institute at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate Sc hool of Education, where he worked on two national research projects, P.L.A.A.Y. (Preventing Long Term Anger and Aggression in Youth) and H.I.P.P. (Health Information Providers and Promoters). Mr. Lassiter received his Masterâs Degree from the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Social Work, where he was the A. Phillip Randolph Award winner in 2001.Dennis Shirshikov is a Financial Analyst with FitSmallBusiness.com (@FitSmallBiz). Dennis earned an MS with an emphasis in Financial Risk Modeling and spend most of his career working with startups. When not helping small businesses and teaching Economics to college students at CUNY Queens College.
Posted by Kenneth Wray at 2:49 PM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Technology may empower, but to what end will that power be used?Ã¢â¬ said Levine in I Surf, Therefore I Am (224). The empowerment of technology simply comes down to the way it is used. More recently; however, the Internet has become some sort of replacement in the way students learn today. With the use of the Internet and little to no interaction with physical books, people can become uneducated rather easily. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, most everyone has access to the Internet; however, it is the way we use it that helps determine our success. Technology has advanced immensely throughout the past decade and will continue to do so. With these advancements taking place, educational programs are cutting down on books and upgrading their technology. By doing this, students are practically given a device with all of their favorite social media accounts right at their fingertips, which causes them to get distracted and not take advantage of their education. Education is important; I believe that is something the majority of humanity can agree on. According to Levine, now that school systems are getting more technologically advanced, the students have begun to surf the Internet; therefore, not reading or doing their work (223). Personally, I did not have this problem. I actually enjoyed reading and doing the work. However, several of my classmates did not feel the same way. In face, when we had group projects I would typically work on them by myself. Reason being, my classmates would gearShow MoreRelatedImpact of Technology on Ed ucation1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages------------------------------------------------- Positive Impact of Technology on Education Technology plays a very important role in the field of education, especially in this 21st century. In fact, computer technology has become easier for teachers to transfer knowledge and for students to obtain it. The use of technology has made the process of teaching and learning more convenient. Talking in a positive sense, the impact of technology on education has been extraordinary. Using Internet and computersRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On Education802 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The use of technology expanding broadly in different aspects of our lives and technology plays a significant role in modern society. The technology used globally and it impacts our lives daily for instant: government, businesses, schools, workplace, environment, and household. The technological evolution led humanity from the dark ages to enlightenment and agriculture to industrial. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the definition of technology means Ã¢â¬Å"the practical application of knowledgeRe ad MoreImpact Of Technology On Education829 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImpact of Technology on Education The way we teach students in the modern classroom has massively changed throughout the years. One major changing factor is the development and use of technology. Before, classrooms were filled with paper, pencils, crayons, and all things needed to be completely hands on with our education. Now, most classrooms have replaced these things with tablets and laptops and smart boards that students get to spend all day staring at. Technology has the potentialRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology In Education1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof constructivism appear on the fringes of education, there is a polarizing argument about what place technology has in schools. Students are coming to school with computers in the form of phones, tablets, or laptops in their pockets and backpacks. Some schools are leading the charge with BYOD (bring your own device) or BYOT (bring your own technology) initiatives. However, there are still districts, schools, and teachers who will not allow technology i nto their classrooms. Many schools and teachersRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On Education985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthis decade, technology has significant influence in many areas of society especially for improving education, language acquisition, support learning, and it is a great way to access to information. In fact, nowadays students depend on their machine such as computers, laptops, mobile phone to study in the classroom or outside the class. In addition, they use the internet to communicate with teachers and to help them do research for information they need to do homework. Although, technology is a substantialRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On Education2762 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages Technology advancement has really provided new platforms for various disciplines leading to great improvements in the education process. Furthermore, education has been thoroughly lightened as a result of technology being applied to education. Actually, technology can be thought of as the application the scientific knowledge and approaches for the different purposes and in this case, education approaches like learning and teaching. In almost two decade technological approaches have been done andRead MoreThe Impact of Technology on Education4413 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The Impact of Technology on Education 16 Introduction Higher education is undergoing a radical shift from localized, teacher-centered, face-to-face courses to student-centered online and hybrid courses offered by global universities. The traditional delivery of education is being supplemented and replaced by digital education models. The proliferation of information on the Web, the proliferation of instructional systems vendors, and the burden on faculty to design hybrid courses threaten theRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On Education And Education Essay1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Education has evolved tremendously over the past centuries. From one room school houses, segregated schools, to public and private schools, forms of education and how we receive it are always changing. In the past decade, technology has become a large part of education and schooling. Views on types of schooling and education are changing rapidly. Videos and articles can be found all over the Internet on basically any subject you can think of. Much of todayÃ¢ â¬â¢s schooling is done through online classesRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On Education1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfact that United States of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s education program is a far stretch from futuristic in most districts; application of technology has undoubtedly showed itself to be a critical factor in most high performing schools. Technology not only improves the learning environment to better fit the student, but also offers previously inaccessible learning material to students. If seen as an investment by the schools for the benefit of the students, private technology assigned to each student would betterRead MoreImpact Of Technology On Education1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWith the great advances in technology, one can accomplish many great feats, be it Virtual Reality, a backpack desktop computer and even smart watches. However, technology has influenced many other parts of our world including education. How has technology influenced education? How do the pupils re ceive an education? How does technology play a viable role in this process? I will specifically be focusing on how education in South Africa is affected by technology. Technology has played a valuable role
Posted by Kenneth Wray at 1:22 AM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The study of slavery in the development of early America is an extremely complex, yet vitally important part of American History. There are hundreds of thousands of documents, debates, and historical studies available today. According to Ms. Goetz, the assistant professor of history at Rice University, who states, in The Southern Journal of History, that in addition to geographic and chronological diversity in the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s, assessment of experiences of colonial slaves is extremely complex, Ã¢â¬Å"especially in the context of three European colonial powers, vigorous Indian groups, and free and enslaved blacksÃ¢â¬ (Goetz, 599). In studying the institution of slavery, careful investigation and analysis of the developing colonies, including theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Aside from the Spanish, who demanded direct control of Native AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s, Europeans quickly established trade relationships with Natives which consisted of manufactured goods for furs and labor. The customs of natives included many oral traditions used to pass on religion and ancestry, leaving much of their experience undocumented. Conflict between Native Americans and colonists resulted shortly after European settlement due to cultural differences and misunderstandings of tradition. One major misunderstanding between Indians and colonists was their different ideologies of slavery. For example, tribal practices of slavery are known to have existed prior to European contact, but the nature of the term differed greatly between the two cultures in contact. Natives used slavery among tribes in forms of religious tradition and ritual, as well as for criminal punishment and peace gestures. Not being economically inspired because of their very recent discovery of agriculture allowing subsistence farming, Ã¢â¬Å"Indians did not buy and sell captives in the pre-colonial era, although they sometimes exchanged enslaved Indians with other tribes in peace gestures or in exchange for their own membersÃ¢â¬ (Seybert). Through their friendly trade relations, Europeans quickly introduced the idea of slaves as a commodity, along with an international market for labor to newly developed plantation economies, eventuallyShow MoreRelatedThe Rise of the Anti-Slavery Movement in the US Essay867 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout the history of America, the struggle between white and black Americans is by the far the most complex and long standing issue. Beginning with first contact between white Europeans and Africans during the English colonial period, Africans were immediately labeled with terms including savage and heathen. During the Antebellum period, institution of chattel slavery in America certain ideas of what the black manÃ¢â¬â¢s role in society became widely known and accepted. Stereotype such as the SamboRead MoreThe Differences Between The Spanish And Colonial Economic System, And The Colonial State And Church Essay1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages do you believ e the previous statement to be true? Be sure to write about the colonial social structure, the colonial economic system, and the colonial state and church. Also, include bible verses to support your argument. Be sure to include two additional sources to support your claim. Honors please have four sources. WH 10 Ch. 17 Essay In the sixteenth century, both Spain and Portugal established enormous colonial empires around the world. Spain ruled most of South America and parts of CentralRead MoreThe History of African Americans: Slavery Essay1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe history of African-Americans has been a paradox of incredible triumph in the face of tremendous human tragedy. African-American persons were shown much discrimination and were treated as second class citizens in the colonies during the development of the nation. The first set men, women, and children to work in the colonies were indentured servants, meaning they were only required to work for a set amount of years before they received their freedom. Then, in 1619 the first black AfricansRead MoreAmerican Slavery American Freedom By Edmond S. Morgan1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn his book, American Slavery American Freedom, the author Edmond S. Morgan informs us of the two strange births of American slavery and American freedom in the n ew colonial Virginia. In this read, we saw how the new colonial Virginia experience creates a strange enigma of early colonial freedom and slavery and how the growth of the two develops hand in hand. The title alone has the reader presuming the reading is focused primarily on American slavery, but to the contrary, it is not. In defenseRead MoreColonization Of The United States1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschattel slavery, and globalization are the things that have truly shaped the United States. The first 13 colonies were founded upon the basis of settler colonialism, the growth of the nation was enabled by chattel slavery, and the rise of the country as a world power was brought about by Globalization. Despite all of this, one must take into consideration the repercussions of such rapid development. Globalization connected the US to other nations and allowed Settler Colonialism and Chattel Slavery toRead More The Origins of Chattel Slavery in Colonial North America Essay1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Origins of Chattel Slavery in Colonial North America There have been many illuminating studies in the field of the origins of chattel slavery in Colonial North America. Alpert, 1970; Edmondson, 1976; Jordan, 1962: Ruchames, 1967; Starr, 1973, wrote seminal studies that did much to bring insight to the subject. Goetz, 2009; Mason, 2006; Smaje, 2002; Neeganagwedgin, 2012, presented evidence that have either reexamined old questions or used new methods and approaches to ask news questionsRead MoreMill Creek Entertainment Has Created The Film Series Up1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMill Creek Entertainment has created the film series Up From Slavery which accounts the events of the Mid-Atlantic slave trade and the struggles of African slaves and their resistance of the institution. The episode 18th Century Colonial America and Slavery of the series specifically details the lives of North American slaves. Out of the 12 million slaves taken from Africa, only 500,000 came to North America. With government legislation insisting that every child o f a female slave becomes a slaveRead MoreSlavery in American Society: Impact and Evolution Essay1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSlavery in American Society: Impact and evolution Slavery in American Society The controversies surrounding slavery have been established in many societies worldwide for centuries. In past generations, although slavery did exists and was tolerated, it was certainly very questionable,Ã¢â¬ ethicallyÃ¢â¬Å". Today, the morality of such an act would not only be unimaginable, but would also be morally wrong. As things change over the course of history we seek to not only explain why things happen, butRead MoreSlavery Of Americ Past And Present1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSlavery in America: Past and Present The significance of slavery and the slave trade in the 19th century was an economic engine driving colonial America. The Atlantic slave convey and their labors touched all corners of the world. Its complex existence greatly impacted social views, politics and many industries in colonial America, these effects would transcend that era. Frankly, its shadowy existence is still part of America today. This controversial part of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history is often unspokenRead MoreRacism - A History : The Color Of Money1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesslave trade of Africans. It underscores how economics served as the driving force behind slavery. The documentary highlights that although slavery existed for several centuries prior to the slave trade, the concept of racism is rooted in the enslavement and exploitation of Africans for labor and capital gain. The documentary describes how the BritishÃ¢â¬â¢s development of the transatlantic slave trade for colonial America served as the catalyst f or racism, not the reverse. As Professor James Walvin, Professor
Posted by Kenneth Wray at 1:43 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËRun, get into the house, QUICK!Ã¢â¬â¢ Hans Wenger shouted out to his family. They were being chased by the German Authorities. Not because they were criminals, but because they were Jews living in Nazi Germany, 1940. We will write a custom essay sample on Lost, Alone but Free At Last or any similar topic only for you Order Now They had been hiding from the authorities for almost a year. HansÃ¢â¬â¢ family consisted of his wife Anneliese and their three children Leila, 11, Leopold, 9 and Greta, 8, they meant everything to Hans and he would sacrifice his own life to keep them safe. Once the family were safe inside the basement of the old abandoned house Hans sat on the edge of an ancient, mouldy sofa. Greta jumped up onto his knee with an innocent smile on her face. Just the way Hans liked it, his children not knowing how unsafe they were. Ã¢â¬ËDaddy, why were those people trying to catch us? Are we in trouble? We always run away from them! Daddy, why?Ã¢â¬â¢ HansÃ¢â¬â¢ face fell, Greta knew something was wrong. It was what he feared the most, and he knew he had to explain somehow. Ã¢â¬ËLiebliag, you do know who Hitler is, yes?Ã¢â¬â¢ Hans looked at Greta, who was shaking her head, her little blonde curls bouncing, Ã¢â¬Ëwell Greta, he is the leader of Germany, which means he gets to decide everything that happens in the country. But, Hitler doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like Jews and he wants to make them all move to certain areas and work for him.Ã¢â¬â¢ Hans dreaded his little girls reply, his heart thumping he waited while watching her mind at work and her little face screwed up in thought. Ã¢â¬ËDaddy, canÃ¢â¬â¢t we stop being Jewish because then we will be safe from Hitler and we wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to work for himÃ¢â¬â¢ GretaÃ¢â¬â¢s face lit up as she said it, as though she had just discovered electricity. Hans felt his tears well up as he watched his daughter, oblivious to life and danger. After the children were all tucked up safely in bed, asleep with the faint sound of snoring, Hans and Anneliese looked on lovingly from the corner of the basement. Ã¢â¬ËI would never be able to forgive myself if our children ended up being sent to a death camp, there would be no chance of us surviving as a family, and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been thinking, and it pains me to say this, but we need to send them away to another country. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re not safe here, and I cannot rest until I know that they are forever free from this danger.Ã¢â¬â¢ Hans was once again welling up, after saying it aloud, it seemed real as if he was going to lose his children, a thought too painful for him to even think about. Ã¢â¬ËLiebliag, I think youÃ¢â¬â¢re right, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t safe and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to be put through the torture of a death camp, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t physically or emotionally strong enough, I think we should send them to England, it will be hard, but for the best.Ã¢â¬â¢ Anneliese by now was also fighting back the tears. Sat on the cold, hard floor arm in arm, rocking to and thro, both crying at the thought of the most painful goodbyes waiting for them in the future. The next morning, Hans and Anneliese told their children the news. His heart pounding against his chest, Hans prepared to break the silence, his childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s excited faces looking towards him. Ã¢â¬ËDad can we attend school again?Ã¢â¬â¢ LeilaÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes glistening with hope that she was right and could be reunited with her education and friends. Ã¢â¬ËCan we go to the shops on our own? ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a new chocolate bar that I really want to try. The sweet shop down the road is selling them!Ã¢â¬â¢ Leopold asked excitement in his voice, as he was thinking about chocolate and outings to the sweet shop when he behaves well in school. Ã¢â¬ËAre we going to be sent to a special part of Germany for the Jews, Daddy? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to work for Hitler!Ã¢â¬â¢ Eyes full to the brim with fear, Greta looked scared and vulnerable. She may have been the youngest, but she was definitely the most observant to her parents upset faces. Once again, Hans and Anneliese were sat arm in arm at the corner of the basement, looking at their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s content faces, wondering what amazing dreams they were having about going on holiday for the first time. They were all excited when Hans broke the news, Anneliese sobbing next to him. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢d given up the fight to stay away from them. But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t good enough. They got caught. Now Anneliese and Hans were saying there last goodbyes to each other. Heartbreakingly painful, but it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter. There hearts had already been shattered beyond repair, when they had to say goodbye to there children Leila, Leopold and Greta. Hans and Anneliese were about to board different cattle trains and when they got off, they knew that everything was going to change, and nothing would be the same. Death camps. Even the thought sent shivers up theyÃ¢â¬â¢re spines. They knew that they would never see each other again, which made it harder. But they got separated and pushed away from each other before they even had the chance to say goodbye. Ã¢â¬ËThis is itÃ¢â¬â¢ thought Anneliese, Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ll just fight for survival, my children will see me again, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re who matter. They deserve to be reunited with at least one parent, but Hans is a fighter heÃ¢â¬â¢ll fight for survival too.Ã¢â¬â¢ After a year at RavensbrÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ck Concentration Camp for Women, AnnelieseÃ¢â¬â¢s strength had been replaced with weakness. She was now a shy women too scared to talk to anybody after her one and only friend at the camp Klara, died, she was crushed by machinery, as it happened the guards would let no one try and help. Anneliese had to do heavy labour work, from the break of dawn until the sunset at dusk. She got little sleep and ate just about nothing. All Anneliese could think about, no matter how hard she was working, was her children. So many questions were going through her mind. Had they all made the journey to Newquay, Cornwall by themselves? Was Greta still observant to everything around her? Was Leila being educated again? Was Leopold looking after his sisters? Had they learnt English? She thought about how grown up her children would look now, the girls beautiful and her little man handsome, like his father. But every time they were pictured in her head, she fought that little bit more, edging closer and closer to survival and freedom. Four painful years later, Anneliese won her battle. She had survived and she was going to go back to her house. When she got there, she wished she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t. She was expecting there to be a few belongings in the basement sheÃ¢â¬â¢d lived in with her family for so long. But nothing. The walls were now jet black, ash on the floor and just a few remnants of what had been there before. It was obvious that someone had set fire to the basement, most definitely the German Authorities, they knew Jews lived here. Anneliese was determined than ever to find her children in England. In England, Leila was sat indoors about to blow out the candles on the cake, it was her 16th birthday. There was no need for her to think of her wish. It had been the same wish for five years now and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to change until it came true. Ã¢â¬ËI wish I could see my parents againÃ¢â¬â¢. There, sheÃ¢â¬â¢d wished it once again. But Leila Wenger knew that if she wished hard enough then it would come true. After Leila had unwrapped her presents, she ran upstairs. She was able to read the letter that her mother had written before they left Germany. Leila Ã¢â¬â Open on your 16th birthday and not a day before Liebliag, this is the hardest letter I have ever had to write, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s to explain why you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had me and your father in your life for so long. We have sent you to England because it was the only place that you would be truly safe. After you leave the country, your father and I will be sent to a concentration camp. This is because of our religion and Hitler the leader doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think that Jews are worthy of living. Of course, we are, so never doubt your religion. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if we will ever see each other again, so I have enclosed photos, one of the whole family, one of you, Leopold and Greta and one of your father and I. Never forget us, because we will always be with you. Happy Birthday Liebliag! Ich liebe dich, dein Mutti After Leila had finished the letter she collapsed onto her bed in tears. She now knew that her wish would never come true, her parents were dead and she was the one that had to tell her little sister. How could she tell a 13 year old that her parents were dead? This wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to be easy, she had to be subtle. This was definitely the worst birthday Leila had ever had and she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t happy about it. After an hour of crying into her pillow, Leila went downstairs as if everything was normal. Ã¢â¬ËVictoria, please may I go out for a walk?Ã¢â¬â¢ Leila asked Victoria, the kind woman that took Leila and Greta in, and cared for them as if they were her own flesh and blood. Ã¢â¬ËYes of course Leila, but be sure to be back within an hourÃ¢â¬â¢ Victoria never liked Leila or Greta being outside for more than an hour at a time, there were still people that hated Germans and anything could happen out there. Leila went to the park and sat on the swings, just gathering up her thoughts and thinking about how to tell Greta about the letter. She supposed she ought to tell Victoria as well. It was such a bad day, and her wish is dead, along with her parents. As Leila made her way to the park gate she had no idea who else was in Newquay. The address said Beachfield Avenue, off Bank Street. Anneliese knew that she was close to seeing her children again. She just kept walking along Bank Street, past the bakers and a tasteful shoe shop. There, Anneliese stopped dead in her tracks. The sign on the side of the sweet shop had written on it Beachfield Avenue. Leopold must love living here, a sweet shop so near! She was on a mission, and that was to find her children. She walked at a fast pace along the road counting the numbers as she went 1.. 3.. 5.. she had a little while until she got to 31. As she walked along the road she started preparing what to say. What if her children didnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognise her? 27.. 29.. 31.. This was it. She was just about to walk up the steps to the front door when she turned around. There behind her was a pretty young girl, couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be any more than 16, blonde hair, green eyes. Ã¢â¬ËExcuse me.. but you, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen to know if.. three children lived here?Ã¢â¬â¢ Anneliese had never felt so nervous in her life, what if this was the wrong address. Ã¢â¬ËTwo girls and a boy?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry, but do you mean Leila, Leopold and Greta?Ã¢â¬â¢ The mysterious girl was looking at Anneliese with interest, she had a German accent and there werenÃ¢â¬â¢t any of those around here. Ã¢â¬ËYes! Yes! Those are the children IÃ¢â¬â¢m looking for! Do you know where they are?Ã¢â¬â¢ Anneliese was now so excited she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help smiling, for first time in years and instantly Anneliese knew everything would be OK. Ã¢â¬ËI do know exactly where all three are, but please what is your name?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËMy name? Well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s Anneliese Wenger. Why?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËItÃ¢â¬â¢s me Mutti, Leila. I read your letter only 2 hours ago, I thought you were deadÃ¢â¬â¢ Leila was so happy, excited and joyful. She knew that if she wished hard enough it would come true. Her mother had come all this way to find them. Ã¢â¬ËPlease Mutti, come inside and meet Victoria, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s the lady thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been looking after us and Greta, sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll be so happy to see you! She always talks about you and father!Ã¢â¬â¢ Leila was so excited about introducing her mother to Victoria. After a long day Anneliese, Leila, Greta and Victoria sat squashed on one sofa. Greta on her mothers lap, Leila clinging onto her arm and Victoria on the other side of Anneliese, the two of them talking like sisters. The moment was almost perfect. The only thing wrong with the moment was Anneliese had lost a husband and a son, while her children had lost a father and a brother. Hans Wenger died in 1943 at Auschwitz Concentration Camp Leopold Wenger died in 1940 during the journey to England due to poor hygiene How to cite Lost, Alone but Free At Last, Papers
Posted by Kenneth Wray at 1:12 PM
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Cyber Crime and Cyber Espionage. Answer: Introduction The aim of this report is to provide light on the topics cyber-crime and cyber-Espionage, which can be considered as the most vicious threat to the privacy and the security of an individual in this new era of technology. Cyber-crime and cyber-espionage both are illegal in the eyes of law and both are same in a way as both of them access to the data and information of the population without their authority or permission. However, one is done for personal profit (Cyber-crime), and the government for the benefits of the communities performs another (Cyber-Espionage). This report put emphasis on such intrusions and focuses on certain preventive measures, which can be implemented before and after the attack to protect personal information and data. How the intruders let, these intrusions have also been proposed in this report. Several examples of cyber-crime and cyber-espionage have also been proposed in this report to show that how much an individual, group of individual, an organization or common people be affected by such cyber-crimes. Cyber-Crime Cybercrime is defined as a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime (hacking, phishing, spamming) or is used as a tool to commit an offense (child pornography, hate crimes) (Mc Guire and Dowling 2013). Cybercriminals may use computer technology to access personal information, business trade secrets or use the internet for exploitive or malicious purposes. Criminals can also use computers for communication and document or data storage. Criminals who perform these illegal activities are often referred to as hackers. Cybercrime encompasses a wide range of activities, but these can generally be broken into two categories: Crimes, which target the computer networks or systems. These types of crimes include viruses and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks (Choo and 2013). Crimes that use computer networks to advance other criminal activities. These types of crimes include cyber-stalking, phishing and fraud or identity theft. Most Vicious Cyber-Crime around the Globe The Original Logic Bomb During the cold war in the year 1982,CIAfound a way to disrupt the operation of a Siberian gas pipeline of Russia without using traditional explosive devices likemissiles or bombs. Titan Rain Shawn Carpenter discovered a series of coordinated cyber raids, in what the FBI believed to originated from government-supported cells in China. Moonlight Maze Thiswas actually an accidental discovery, which was made by the US officials and was believed to be conceived by the Russians although they denied their involvement. In this big cyber-attack, the hackers targeted military maps and schematics. Epsilon Although, the targets of the hackers were email addresses that they can use for their criminal activities. This is the fourth biggest cyber-crime in history. In a result of this hacking the data-breach in Epsilon, which is the worlds largest provider of marketing and handling services, has an estimated damage cost that ranged from $225 million to $4 billion dollars. Why this Happens? Botnets and the Rise of the Zombies As with many other industries, up and coming economies, such as China in particular, has become a favored as target for cybercrime in 2015. One significant factor has been a growth in broadband adoption in the last year. In 2013, the Chinese Government announced plans to expand broadband coverage for both rural and urban areas by 2020 (Gray, Cinton and Rinehart 2013). One of the milestones for the multi-pronged strategy aimed to bring fixed broadband connections to 400 million Chinese households by 2015. In addition, prices have been kept low, as broadband speeds have increased. All of this make the country an attractive target for cybercriminals seeking to compromise a fresh source of high-speed, internet-connected computers (Zhang et al. 2012). Security threats Email threats and phishing campaigns Malware and ransomware Mobile malware Advanced Persistent Threats Cloud security Web and application vulnerabilities (Wang and lu 2013) Denial of Service (DoS) attacks leveraging the Internet of Things (IoT) Preventive Measures CEO fraud, or cyber-attacks on C-suite executives, will grow. Techniques such as spear phishing, where cybercriminals hook their victims with a malware-infected email that appears to be from a trusted individual or business, will increasingly be used in this kind of attack. The commoditization of the tools of cybercrime will also increase. Cybercriminals will look to build their businesses by swapping and selling stolen information and prewritten malware, or by offering their skills for hire, on the dark web. State-sponsored cyber espionage will become one of the hottest topics of 2017, as foreign cybercriminals redouble their efforts to digitally infiltrated government and related agencies both with and without the knowledge of their own governing bodies (Dunn Cavelty 2012). Ransomware will continue to pose a real threat. Cybercriminals will focus their efforts on organizations, like legal firms or doctors surgeries, which hold a goldmine of sensitive personal information but are often less secure than many government or private business databases. The paradox of protection will come to the fore. As people become more aware of cybercrime, many will attempt to protect themselves by taking their personal information and professional verification tools offline wherever possible. However, by reverting to offline methods, many individuals and organizations run the risk of leaving personal details vulnerable to being stolen from low-security storage and migrated online. Impact of Cyber-crime Fifty-one percent of people think that over the past five years it has become harder to stay safe and secure online than in the real world. Yet, 689 million people in 21 countries experienced cybercrime within the last year alone. The reason for this staggering number is simple. Most people do not take the right precautions to protect their digital lives (Saini, Rao and Panda 2012). While some are unaware of online dangers, others think it can be dealt with after it happens. The truth remains that cybercrime is evolving rapidly and affecting the daily and digital lives of people. Within the past year, cybercrime victims have spent $126 billion globally and lost 19.7 hours the time it would take to fly from New York City to Los Angeles four times dealing with cybercrime. The number of connected devices has exponentially grown in the last year and there is a constant need to be connected. In fact, people are willing to engage in risky online behaviour in order to access Wi-Fi. People are also known to share their passwords with friends, access financial information via unsecured Wi-Fi connections and click on suspicious links thereby increasing the vulnerability of their connected devices. Eighty percent of the consumers who took a compromising action in response to a potential phishing incident experienced negative consequences, including identify theft, money stolen from bank accounts, credit cards opened in their name and unauthorized apps installed on their device (Lewis and Baker 2013). Cyber-Espionage Cyber espionage or Cyber spying is the act of engaging in an attack or series of attacks that let an unauthorized user or users view classified material. These attacks are often subtle, amounting to nothing more than an unnoticed bit of code or process running in the background of a mainframe or personal workstation, and the target is usually a corporate or government entity (krekel, Adams and Bakos 2012). The goal is typically to acquire intellectual property or government secrets. Attacks can be motivated by greed or profit, and can be used in conjunction with a military operation or as an act of terrorism. Consequences can range from loss of competitive advantage to loss of materials, data, infrastructure, or loss of life. Examples of Cyber-Espionage In December of 2009, Google began to notice persistent cyber-attacks aimed at acquiring information specific to Gmail accounts. The accounts were held by Chinese human rights activists, and Google was not the only target. To the search engine giant's credit, they quickly informed at least 20 other companies that they too were being targeted through a vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer (Nakashima 2013). Preventive measures were taken, and McAfee Labs identified the problem in early 2010 and code-named it Aurora. The Aurora attackers used targeted emails with malware sent to individuals who were judged as good targets because they were likely to have a high level of access to valuable intellectual property. The reaction to this act of cyber espionage varied around the world. Microsoft sent a security breach report and released a security patch. Some companies and governments also switched browsers to help safeguard against future attacks (Center 2013). Why this Happens? For years, corporations have attempted to seek advantages by prying into the business plans of their competitors. One tactic is to send in faux employees who attempt to gain access to data or projects where new technology is being developed. Technology provided an evolutionary path for this activity, and resulted in the birth of cyber spying. The faux employee is still a useful tactic, but now an unsecured workstation is far more attractive. An individual can use a USB stick to upload a worm or virus in a matter of seconds. The goal might be to identify and open a security portal or find an exploit that can be targeted later (Fidler 2013). Business websites can offer the same type of openings, and experienced hackers can use a vulnerable website to execute an attack. Emails that appear to be official may be sent to specific individuals with higher network privileges who could be lured into clicking a link that downloads code to enable later attacks. This type of attack is called spear phishing. Modern browser software is comprised of thousands of lines of code. New lines of code add new features as the software evolves. Sometimes new code, by chance or oversight (or lack thereof) breaks little-known features or works at-odds with security patches that have previously been effective. When a new feature or a new piece of software hits the market, it is analysed, dissected, and backward-engineered by countless individuals and interested parties around the world. Preventive measures While no way is guaranteed to eliminate all attacks, its usually recommended to companies and other organizations that they assess current security and procedures, evaluate risks and develop a security policy or policies that help address vulnerabilities. It may also be wise to define daily procedures and establish a response plan when an attack is detected. Procedures like backups, software and hardware updates, and other security updates should be followed, recorded, verified and audited for compliance. Procedures can also include a mobile device management policy (Skinner 2013). Staff and employees are typically the first line of defence, so educating company personnel is typically recommended. Employees should understand the importance of security protection, like rotating passwords and keeping company confidential information safe. They should also understand how to use company-approved virus and malware protection software. Informing personnel about viruses and malware is important and may help limit further breaches (Fidler 2013). When employees understand the potential for harm, they may be more likely to follow the company security policy, minimizing acts of non-compliance. Impact of Cyber Espionage For most daily Internet uses, the hidden world of international cyber espionage may seem too distant to be of any real importance. To most individual citizens, cyber espionage may not seem to influence their lives very much, but its costs on a nation-state are significant. The impact can vary significantly from monetary loss to physical infrastructure damage to civilian casualties, and the cost can range from insignificant to devastating (Lagazio, Sherif and Cushman 2014). In this section, we will first discuss the different impacts of cyber espionage and their costs on any given society, as well as explore ideas about how nation-state cyber espionage influences the future of international relations and national security. Cost is another factor for this situation. Although the amount and type of cost associated with cyber espionage can vary, in extreme cases it can be very high. When cyber-attacks are coupled with actual warfare, as in Russias preferred strategy, the loss of communication systems can severely restrict the victim nations ability to defend itself and its citizens. In this case, such an attack results in loss of property, infrastructure, and human life (Weissbrodt 2013). When Russia used this strategy on Estonia, Georgia, and Ukraine, the three victim countries lost much of their ability to defend them or to reach out and appeal to the outside world. Coupled with physical strikes, the cost on the victim state can be enormous. Conclusion Based on the above report it can be concluded that privacy and security of an individual is much more important in all aspect that is being destroyed or theft by government and the criminals both. Cyber-crimes are influencing globally now a days and lots of population are being influenced by such intrusions. This unauthorized access does not affect the individuals or the organization by collecting information but have power to affect them in the real world. This report mentioned how these virtual activities can harm the common population and the organizations in the real world and how big its impact could be. Cyber-espionage is no doubt beneficial for the community but the cost of this type of security is the private and secured information of the individuals, whom have the right to choose whom they want to reveal this information by law. Measures that are stated in the above report could help and individual from not being prey of any of the both activities. References: Center, M.I., 2013. Apt1: Exposing one of chinas cyber espionage units. Mandian. com. Choo, K.K.R. and Grabosky, P., 2013. Cyber crime. Dunn Cavelty, M., 2012. Cyber-security. Fidler, D.P., 2013. Economic Cyber Espionage and International Law: Controversies Involving Government Acquisition of Trade Secrets through Cyber Technologies. ASIL Insights, 17(10). Fidler, D.P., 2013. Economic Cyber Espionage and International Law: Controversies Involving Government Acquisition of Trade Secrets through Cyber Technologies. ASIL Insights, 17(10). Gray, D.C., Citron, D.K. and Rinehart, L.C., 2013. Fighting Cyber-Crime After United States v. Jones. Krekel, B., Adams, P. and Bakos, G., 2012. Occupying the Information High Ground: Chinese Capabilities for Computer Network Operations and Cyber Espionage Prepared for the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission by Northrop Grumman Corp. Lagazio, M., Sherif, N. and Cushman, M., 2014. A multi-level approach to understanding the impact of cyber crime on the financial sector. Computers Security, 45, pp.58-74. Lewis, J. and Baker, S., 2013. The economic impact of cybercrime and cyber espionage. McAfee. McGuire, M. and Dowling, S., 2013. Cyber crime: A review of the evidence. Summary of key findings and implications. Home Office Research report, 75. Nakashima, Ellen. "US Target of Massive Cyber-Espionage Campaign." Washington Post (2013). Saini, H., Rao, Y.S. and Panda, T.C., 2012. Cyber-crimes and their impacts: A review. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2(2), pp.202-9. Skinner, C.P., 2013. An international law response to economic cyber espionage. Wang, W. and Lu, Z., 2013. Cyber security in the Smart Grid: Survey and challenges. Computer Networks, 57(5), pp.1344-1371. Weissbrodt, D., 2013. Cyber-conflict, Cyber-crime, and Cyber-espionage. Minn. J. Int'l L., 22, p.347. Zhang, Y., Xiao, Y., Ghaboosi, K., Zhang, J. and Deng, H., 2012. A survey of cyber crimes. Security and Communication Networks, 5(4), pp.422-437.
Posted by Kenneth Wray at 10:46 PM